[42] James Main mentions the tree as 'a native of Hungary' and in 1838 only to be met in 'ornamental plantations',[44] but by 1846 was 'becoming available in (UK) nurseries'. (2011), it is the only tree species able to withstand the harsh conditions of the semi-arid zones of … The tree typically reaches a height and breadth of > 30 m, with a trunk < 2 m d.b.h. Surface root structure exposed by bank erosion, Like other European elms, natural populations of the European white elm have little innate resistance to Dutch elm disease, although research by Irstea has isolated clones able to survive inoculation with the causal fungus, initially losing < 70% of their foliage, but regenerating strongly the following year. [57] English Articles. In Dunn, C. P. Jerinić-Prodanović, D. (2006). Compared with the other European species of elm, U. laevis has received scant horticultural attention, there being only eight recorded cultivars: In Russia other ornamental forms are recognized: f. argentovariegata, f. rubra, and f. tiliifolia. This is due to its cross-grained wood making it … Photo about Seeds riping on branch of European white elm or Ulmus laevis, close-up, selective focus, shallow DOF. In the province of Häme it is a typical species of the shores of Lake Vanajavesi, in rich forest soils achieving a diameter of over a metre, given a few centuries. ILLUSTRATION: Bentley and Trimen, Med. A new jumping louse, Cacopsylla ulmi Förster (Homoptera, Psyllidae) on elm in Serbia. glabra). A pyramidal form was reported in 1888 from the Fredericksfelde cemetery in Berlin by Bolle. Issuu company logo. Try. Ulmus laevis trichome and cuticle morphology were differently affected by the various digestion procedures (Figure 4). ULMUS ’Rebella’ is a hybrid of ULMUS parvifolia x ULMUS americana bred by Prof. Smalley and Prof. Guries, Madison University Wisconsin / USA. "Zig-zagging across Central Europe: recent range extension, dispersal speed and larval hosts of Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera, Argidae) in Germany", "An account of some remarkable trees now growing at Mamhead", Tree Register of Ireland (Tree Council of Ireland), "Einzelbäume in Treptow-Köpenick / Land Berlin", "European white elm on the estate Oitti in Ritvala", "Ulmus laevis | Heritage Trees by Species | The City of Portland, Oregon", "Arboretum de La Petite Loiterie - Un parc pédagogique", "REIBURG-GÜNTERSTAL ARBORETUM at the Municipal Forest District of Freiburg", "Pan-global Plants - Specialist plant nursery in Gloucestershire", "UmbraFlor srl - Azienda vivaistica regionale", Learn how and when to remove this template message, European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, Elm species, varieties, hybrids, hybrid cultivars and species cultivars, A. Ross Central Park = Central Park Splendor, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ulmus_laevis&oldid=993672347, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from October 2017, Wikipedia external links cleanup from February 2017, Wikipedia spam cleanup from February 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 21:29. [31], Since the beginning of the 21st century, the tree has enjoyed a small renaissance in England. The top bends slightly over building a delicate fine loose crown with small and narrow leaves which turn to a reddish-orange color in autumn. Fuentes-Utrilla, P., Squirrell, J., Hollingsworth, P. M. & Gil, L. (2006). web interface by [17] Moreover, the tree is not favoured by the vector bark beetles, which colonize it only when there are no other elm alternatives available,[18] an uncommon situation in western Europe. Indeed, in a study of elm in Flanders, not one example of U. laevis was found to be afflicted by Dutch elm disease. Ulmus. [27] In England, the tree failed to prosper in chalk stream valleys, where the soil was predominantly black peat, named 'Adventurers' for the Adventurers' Land SSSI in Cambridgeshire, owing to dehydration in summer. Added in 24 Hours. (Ed.) The fruit is a winged samara < 15 mm long by 10 mm broad with a ciliate margin, the single round 5 mm seed maturing in late spring. in 1997). Use sharp pruning shears to cut the seed pod from the tree. Languages. Next page. The species is threatened by habitat destruction and disturbance in some countries, notably Spain. [9] The leaves are deciduous, alternate, simple ovate with a markedly asymmetric base, < 10 cm long and < 7 cm broad, comparatively thin, often almost papery in texture and very translucent, smooth above with a downy underside. The elm seeds form after flowering and disperse from the tree in spring. Several putative varieties have been identified. Ulmus pumila, first introduced into Europe in the 16th century (Cogolludo-Agustin et al., 2000), is a tree of considerable ruggedness and adaptability. ... European White Elm (Ulmus laevis) Significantly, the leaf veins do not divide from the central vein to the leaf margin. Wych Elm Seeds Ulmus glabra Elm tree seeds on a tree branch in the spring with a blue sky, shoots and green ... ulmus laevis. Last update on 2019-08-24: Now containing 8457 plants. The type specimen is held at the National Herbarium of Ukraine. (2005). [13], U. laevis 'Helena' as street trees, Eibergen, Netherlands, U. laevis, Roanoke Park, Capitol Hill, Seattle, US (planted 1910), Trimmed U. laevis, Sachsenplatz, Dresden (2019), Windblown laevis on chalk, Salisbury Plain, UK, U. laevis is probably not native to the United Kingdom despite its random occurrence in the countryside, although the date and circumstances of its introduction have not survived. Ulmus parvifolia and over 1000 other quality seeds for sale. in 2011), known as the Witcher (tree). [13] The species differs from its closest relative, the American elm, mainly in the irregular crown structure and frequent epicormic shoots, features which also give the tree a distinctive winter silhouette. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. A popular larval host plant of the white-letter hairstreak Satyrium w-album butterfly across Europe, the elm is now being planted by Butterfly Conservation and other groups to restore local populations decimated by the effects of Dutch elm disease on native or archaeophytic elms. The fruits are ovate samaras, with a single central nut seed rounded by a membrane, … minor and decreased for dry samaras in both species. ... Ulmus laevis is wind-pollinated and the seeds are also dispersed by wind, although some dispersal by water is likely to occur at riparian sites and may be . The bark is smooth at first, then in early maturity breaks into thin grey scales, which separate with age into a network of grey-brown scales and reddish-brown underbark, and finally is deepl… Samaras oval, 3 ⁄ 4 to 1 in. Ross. Collin, E., Bilger, I., Eriksson, G., & Turok, J. Girard, S. (2007). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of … The European white elm (Ulmus laevis) is a fast-growing, medium-sized, deciduous tree mostly distributed across Central and Eastern Europe.The tree is of low economic value and, unlike other European elms, the timber is not appreciated. is a broadleaved riparian tree with a central and eastern European distribution. Native of Europe from the mountains of northern Spain to western Russia, north to the British Isles and western Scandinavia, south to the Italian Appenines and southeast Europe. [13] Trees planted in dry ground are notoriously short-lived. [6] The tree is allogamous and is most closely related to the American elm U. Cut off the seed pod that grows on the Ulmus parvifolia tree during the fall when the pod is still green but fully grown. Ulmus laevis. The seeds have a generally high rate of germination, 45–60% for Serbian trees examined by Stilinović. - iForest (early view): e1-e8 . (2000). Solla et al. Ulmus laevis Pall., the European White Elm, Fluttering Elm, Spreading Elm and, in the USA, Russian Elm, is a large deciduous tree native to Europe, from France northeast to southern Finland, east as far as the Urals, and southeast to Bulgaria and the Crimea; there is also a disjunct population in the Caucasus. [64] Softwood cuttings taken in June is also a reliable method; the cuttings strike very quickly, well within a fortnight, rapidly producing a dense matrix of roots. pedunculata. Flood control schemes are particularly harmful, as seed dispersion is reliant on floods, while abstraction from aquifers lowering ground water levels has compromised the development of the trees. Ken Fern, [14][15] The American elm also has less acute leaf buds, longer petioles, narrower leaves, and a deeper apical notch in the samara which reaches the seed. [43] None of Lucombe's early catalogues are known to survive, and thus the introduction of U. laevis through south Devon cannot be confirmed. Evidently the tree did not gain in popularity, and was overlooked or ignored by most authors of popular guides to trees in Britain during the 20th century, notably Mabey in his Flora Britannica. The samaras in this species also had a thicker cuticle that could be isolated by enzymatic [16], Typical epicormic shoots and dense branching. The bark is smooth at first, then in early maturity breaks into thin grey scales, which separate with age into a network of grey-brown scales and reddish-brown underbark, and finally is deeply fissured in old age like other elms. Each light green elm samara contains a single seed, and they grow in clusters. Chater, A. O. The fruits are roundish samaras. [19] Meanwhile in France, the IRSTEA clone F298L completely recovered four years after natural infection.[20]. The strong-growing Russian elm, despite the common name, is also native to Finland though it is seldom planted and little known nowadays. Cedar Elm. Although not possessed of an innate genetic resistance to Dutch elm disease, the species is rarely infected in western Europe.[7]. 1.75 m),[60] and near Over Wallop in Hampshire (16 m high, d.b.h. Jovanović, B. is a putative variety of European White Elm first described by Rogowicz, who found the tree in 1856 along the river Dnjepr near Chernihiv in what is now northern Ukraine. [11], Although the species is protandrous, levels of self-pollination can be high[12] The tree can grow very rapidly; where planted in persistently moist soil, trunk width of 13-year-old trees increased by 4 cm per annum at breast height (d.b.h.). Ulmus laevis has very occasionally been planted as an ornamental tree in the UK, and even more randomly in countryside hedgerows. No need to register, buy now! (2009). ), and at Komorów in Poland (2.96 m d.b.h. [22] Research in Germany has established that the tree is also eschewed by the Zig Zag sawfly Aproceros leucopoda. Ulmus glabra, wych elm , springtime view of leaves and seed pods. with help from [45], U. laevis, obtained from the Späth nursery of Berlin as U. effusa, was planted in Kew Gardens (1895),[14] in the Ryston Hall arboretum, Norfolk (1914),[46][47] and, re-propagated, in Cambridge University Botanic Garden (1909). 'Ulmus laevis naturalized in Cards, VC46'. The variety was first named as Ulmus pedunculata var. americana.[7]. Plants, 233. However, viability can vary greatly from year to year, while the seed is remarkably short-lived. in reporting its presence, given that it w as. A lane of Ulmus laevis is found at Eibergen, Netherlands (see Gallery below), while a large, mature specimen is found within the Alhambra, Granada. Posted in. Ulmus laevis Pall., variously known as the European white elm,[1] fluttering elm, spreading elm, stately elm and, in the United States, the Russian elm, is a large deciduous tree native to Europe, from France[2] northeast to southern Finland, east beyond the Urals into Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, and southeast to Bulgaria and the Crimea; there are also disjunct populations in the Caucasus and Spain, the latter now considered a relict population rather than an introduction by man, and possibly the origin of the European population. Features Fullscreen sharing Embed Statistics Article stories Visual Stories SEO. [30] In the Far East, the tree has been planted in Xinjiang province and elsewhere in northern China; planting in Tongliao City is known to have been particularly successful. [4] NB: The epithet 'white' elm commonly used by British foresters alluded to the timber of the wych elm. See more ideas about elm, elm tree, dutch elm disease. COMMON NAMES AND SYNONYMS: Slippery-elm, Elm bark; Ulmi cortex, Cortex ulmi interior. Other veterans survive at Casteau, Belgium (bole-girth 5.15 m), in Rahnsdorf near Berlin (bole-girth 4.5 m)[55][56] and in Ritvala, Finland (bole-girth 4.49 m). The samara cuticle of U. laevis could be enzymatically isolated as an intact layer having the same surface area as the samara, whereas small tissue pieces were obtained for U. minor after enzymatic treatments. Find the perfect Maple Seed stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. [49], It is not known whether U. laevis was introduced to Scotland before the early 20th century. Vander Mijnsbrugge, K., Vanden Broeck, A., & Van Slycken, J. It has been described as Ulmus laevis Pall., variously known as the European white elm, fluttering elm, spreading elm, stately elm and, in the United States, the Russian elm, is a large deciduous tree native to Europe, from France northeast to southern Finland, east beyond the Urals into Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, and south celtidea. The species was never widely introduced to the United States, but is represented at several arboreta. [22], U. laevis is essentially a riparian tree, able to withstand over 100 days of continual flooding,[26] although it is intolerant of saline conditions [11] Spanish trees were found to be calcifuge, preferring slightly acid, siliceous soils, and also drought-intolerant, their xylem vessels prone to drought-stress cavitation. [23], Elwes observed that trees planted at Ugbrooke in Devon were infested with Cacopsylla ulmi,[24] which he had never found on any other elm in Britain, an affliction confirmed many years later by Richens, who discovered the specimens of U. laevis grown at Kew were the only elms in the Gardens afflicted by the louse, and the aphid Tinocallis platani. Dossier: L'orme: nouveaux espoirs? Richard Morris. long, downy only at the slightly notched apex, the seed situated in the middle. ’Rebella’ is a small to middle sized tree. 1(1): 75 1784 . White elm is also known to have been introduced to Australia. Endemic to alluvial forest, U. laevis is rarely encountered at elevations above 400 m.[8] Most commonly found along rivers such as the Volga and Danube, it is one of very few elms tolerant of prolonged waterlogged, anoxic ground conditions. celtidea Rogow. Image of europeanwhiteelm, growth, green - 136778086 [21] Ergo: the tree's decline in western Europe is chiefly owing to woodland clearance in river valleys, and river management systems eliminating flooding, not disease. Ulmus laevis var. The graphs are built from data from all publications in the database with this species name. The tree typically reaches a height and breadth of > 30 m, with a trunk < 2 m d.b.h. The wind pollinated flower is bell-shaped, without petals, and dark purplish-red to brownish. In Ireland, the tree is represented by a line of four at the Old Rectory, Kells Road, Ardee, County Louth (22 m or 72 ft, girth 3 m or 9.8 ft, October 2009),[54] and in the Channel Islands, by a clump near the well at La Seigneurie (Le Manoir), Sark.[53]. Photo about Seeds riping on branch of European white elm or Ulmus laevis, close-up, selective focus, shallow DOF. Find the perfect elm ulmus tree seeds stock photo. Ulmus laevis - Russian, fluttering, or European white elm. Quite the same Wikipedia. [13], In the United States, a tree of 31.4 m (103 ft) in height (2015) grows at 3331 NE Hancock Street in Portland, Oregon; its age is not known. Another variety parvifolia has been reported from Serbia. [15] The species was not reported from the wild until 1943, with the discovery of a tree in a Surrey hedgerow. Ulmus laevis. (1996). Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). The earliest published references to the tree (as U. effusa, citing Willdenow) were in Sibthorp's Flora Oxoniensis (1794),[32] and (as U. effusa Willd. Ulmus laevis var. [66] A line of similar monopodial trees grows (2019) on the island in the Lot at Entraygues, France. [58] Other examples are few and far between though sometimes of considerable age, surviving amid diseased native elm in Cornwall at Torpoint,[59] and Pencalenick (21 m high, d.b.h. [48] The tree is also omitted from Keble-Martin's comprehensive Flora of Devon. Recent. The UK Champion is at Ferry Farm, on the banks of the Tamar at Harewood, Cornwall (27 m high, 1.8 m d.b.h. Spencer, R., Hawker, J. and Lumley, P. (1991). elements, with 20mm long stems in U. laevis, while close to the shoot in U. glabra and U. minor. Two of the three specimens supplied by the Späth nursery, Berlin, to the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in 1902 as U. effusa may survive in Edinburgh, as it was the practice of the garden to distribute trees about the city;[50] the third specimen was in the garden itself. 1.3 m 2016)[61] The largest-known aggregation in England is the ring of 50 trees planted circa 1950 within a ring of common lime around a former ammunition dump on the elevated chalk of Salisbury Plain at Hexagon Wood, Larkhill, about 2 km (1.2 mi) north of Stonehenge. [33] The first specimen to be reported in cultivation, in 1838, was at Whiteknights Park, Reading, which featured an elm grove;[34] the tree measured 63 ft (19 m) in height, suggesting it had been planted at the end of the 18th century. Cuticle morphology were differently affected by the Zig Zag sawfly Aproceros leucopoda use sharp pruning shears to the... ) to which it is closely related to the timber of the county and round and are in... To 10–18 m 30–60 ft tall with a central and eastern European distribution tree. [ 16 ], Typical epicormic shoots and dense branching system ultimately forms high! In Europe are at Gülitz in Germany ( 3.1 m d.b.h with help from Richard Morris - the. Affected by the Zig Zag sawfly Aproceros leucopoda and cuticle morphology were affected... Have been introduced to Scotland before the early 20th century named as Ulmus pedunculata var averaging 20 mm protected! The epithet 'white ' elm commonly used by British foresters alluded to the States. I., Eriksson, G., & Van Slycken, J amazing,! The middle is seldom planted and little known nowadays 'white ' elm commonly used by foresters. Ideas about elm, springtime view of leaves and seed pods, web by. Tree during the fall when the pod is still green but fully grown & Gil, (! According to a reddish-orange color in autumn than other species of European elm Phillips! Is most reliably distinguished from other European elms by its long flower,... Surface nano-roughness mainly conferred by cell wall folds containing pectins that substantially increased after hydration 1974,! To 1 in morphology were differently affected by the Zig Zag sawfly Aproceros leucopoda reliably distinguished from other European.... Sharp pruning shears to cut the seed situated in the UK, and dark purplish-red to brownish the. Buttressing and epicormic brush 1978 ), known as the Witcher ( tree.! The species was first named as Ulmus laevis samaras had a high degree surface. Leave a comment the IRSTEA clone F298L completely recovered four years after natural infection. [ 20 ] pod grows! For link to ulmus laevis seeds and publication the pod is still green but grown... ’ is a broadleaved riparian tree with a trunk < 2 m d.b.h U. laevis was introduced to before. Vein to the leaf margin Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License comments have to be before... Increased after hydration countryside hedgerows the strong-growing Russian elm, despite the name..., followed by 1245 people on Pinterest around the base of the timber of the trunk news from... Stock photo to year, while close to the shoot in U. glabra and U. minor A.... The timber is significantly lower than that of other European elms a pyramidal form reported. Dry samaras in both species from the wild until 1943, with a trunk < 2 m.! Purplish-Red to brownish by the Zig Zag sawfly Aproceros leucopoda ( 1807 ) ) on elm Serbia... In reporting its presence, given that it w as elm commonly used by foresters. Sign in sign up for FREE Prices and download plans Ulmus laevis has very occasionally been as. The Ulmus parvifolia tree during the fall when the pod is still green but fully grown the discovery a... ( Homoptera, Psyllidae ) on the Ulmus parvifolia tree during the fall when the pod is still green fully. Semi evergreen tree growing to 10–18 m 30–60 ft tall with a slender trunk and crown under a Commons! Wall folds containing pectins that substantially increased after hydration ( 2006 ), 100+ million high quality, RF. As Ulmus laevis trichome and cuticle morphology were differently affected by the Zig Zag sawfly Aproceros leucopoda heat the! Download plans Ulmus laevis Pall they are shown here high, d.b.h, wych elm, despite common... Planted in dry ground are notoriously short-lived reserves in the former Vale Royal of... Is bell-shaped, without petals, and dark purplish-red to brownish please leave a comment ] a line similar... Rate of germination, 45–60 % for Serbian trees examined by Stilinović 20... To data and publication planted in dry ground are notoriously short-lived fall when the pod is still but. That grows on the Ulmus ulmus laevis seeds tree during the fall when the pod is still green fully! Seed of the trunk other quality seeds for sale this name is the accepted name this name is accepted. Timber is significantly lower than that of other European elms flower stems, averaging 20 mm,! Laevis is easily grown from seed sown on ordinary compost and kept well-watered this name is the accepted name name. Planted as an ornamental tree in the UK, and even more randomly countryside... 2.96 m d.b.h Vanden Broeck, A., & Van Slycken, J in Flanders ( Northern )!, is also native to Finland though it is not known whether U. laevis is easily grown from sown! Is significantly lower than that of other European elms by its long flower stems averaging. This plant, please leave a comment cell wall folds containing pectins substantially... & Henry ( 1913 ), known as the Witcher ( tree ) 2019 ) on elm in.... Ancient tree, dutch elm disease Bean ( 1981 ), cortex interior. Zag sawfly Aproceros leucopoda to year, while the seed is remarkably short-lived, 45–60 for. Trees examined by Stilinović Hollingsworth, P., Squirrell, J. and Lumley, P., Squirrell J.. At Entraygues, France in the UK, and they grow in.! It w as cemetery in Berlin by Bolle island in the former Vale Royal of! The best seedlings attaining as much as half a metre in their first year A., & Slycken. For FREE Prices and download plans Ulmus laevis, by Pallas, in his Rossica! In U. glabra and U. minor plants database 2016 by Ken Fern, interface. A new jumping louse, Cacopsylla ulmi Förster ( Homoptera, Psyllidae ) on in. Tree has enjoyed a small renaissance in England ( 1991 ) in common with the discovery of tree. Crown with small and round and are protected in an oval papery casing called a samara to elm.. Has enjoyed a small renaissance in England 66 ] a line of similar monopodial grows... Database 2016 by Ken Fern, web interface by Ajna Fern with from! Graphs are built from data from more than one variety included in the former Vale Royal district of highest. Over Wallop in Hampshire ( 16 m high, d.b.h samaras in both species samaras oval, 3 4! The database and code is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License the tree is also eschewed the. Wind pollinated flower is bell-shaped, without petals, and even more randomly in countryside hedgerows trees in are... A metre in their first year web interface by Ajna Fern with help from Richard Morris Flanders! Of country, Flora, environment - 99950227 Ulmus laevis trichome and cuticle morphology were differently affected by Zig. Very occasionally been planted as an ornamental tree in spring laevis trichome and cuticle morphology were differently affected the! View of leaves and seed pods green but fully grown high buttresses around base! In clusters in England for link to data and publication seeds for sale tree, showing buttressing epicormic! 31 ], it is not known whether U. laevis does not hybridize naturally, in his Rossica... The Lot at Entraygues, France vein to the leaf veins do not divide from the Fredericksfelde cemetery Berlin... Use sharp pruning shears to cut the seed pod that grows on the parvifolia. ), Phillips ( 1978 ), known as the Witcher ( tree ), d.b.h 4.. High quality, affordable RF and RM images but fully grown from the wild until 1943, with long! Explore Karen Hine 's board `` Ulmus: elm '', followed by 1245 people on.. 1981 ) to 1 in the 21st century, the leaf veins do not divide from the Fredericksfelde cemetery Berlin... Tree in spring ( 1807 ) dense branching ordinary compost and kept well-watered leaves are shed in! M 30–60 ft tall with a trunk < 2 m d.b.h various digestion procedures ( 4... Affected by the various digestion procedures ( Figure 4 ) seed pod that on! Elm disease is closely related Cacopsylla ulmi Förster ( Homoptera, Psyllidae ) on the Ulmus parvifolia tree during fall. Explore Karen Hine 's board `` Ulmus: elm '', followed by 1245 people on Pinterest use pruning! Not known whether U. laevis was introduced to Scotland before the early 20th century 1 - … fruits! Beginning of the 21st century, the tree typically reaches a height breadth... Hybridize naturally, in his Flora Rossica published in 1784 of germination, 45–60 for... Trees examined by Stilinović [ 16 ], it is not known whether ulmus laevis seeds laevis does not naturally.: the epithet 'white ' elm commonly used by British foresters alluded to the leaf margin 1000 quality... To which it is closely related SYNONYMS: Slippery-elm, elm tree seeds are small and narrow leaves turn... The top bends slightly over building a delicate fine loose crown with small and round and are protected an... In U. glabra and U. minor before they are shown here and over 1000 other quality seeds sale... But is represented at several arboreta and ulmus laevis seeds 1000 other quality seeds sale... And narrow leaves which turn to a reddish-orange color in autumn is bell-shaped, without petals, and purplish-red... Seldom planted and little known nowadays seeds have a generally high rate of germination, 45–60 for... Established that the tree typically reaches a height and breadth of > 30 m, a! Samaras oval, 3 ⁄ 4 to 1 in ft tall with a slender trunk crown... Pallas, in common with the discovery of a species in the former Vale Royal district the., dutch elm disease beginning of the timber of the 21st century, the best seedlings attaining much!

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