The objective of the stations is to help the Christian faithful to make a spiritual pilgrimage through contemplation of the Passion of Christ. If the Via Crucis goes outside, e.g., in a cemetery or cloister, it should if possible begin and end in the church. If there are Franciscan Fathers in the same town or city, their superior must be asked to bless the Stations or delegate some priest either of his own monastery or a secular priest. It is as follows: It will be noticed that only five of these correspond exactly with our Stations. In monasteries they are often placed in the cloisters. These faculties are quinquennial. Boffin and some of the others visited Jerusalem for the express purpose of obtaining the exact measurements, but unfortunately, though each claimed to be correct, there is an extraordinary divergence between some of them. [citation needed][relevant? Experience the way of the cross as you never have before. This delegation of a certain priest for the blessing of the Stations must necessarily be done in writing. The Way of the Cross è un cortometraggio del 1908 diretto da James Stuart Blackton.La sceneggiatura si deve al reverendo Madison C. Peters, un religioso che, tra il 1908 e il 1909, collaborò alla realizzazione di quattro pellicole di argomento biblico. Mediation: Most fortunate is the soul who walks by the way of Calvary, following Jesus our Redeemer, for if we suffer with Christ now with Christ we shall reign in the glory of the Father. In 1521, a book called Geystlich Strass (German: "spiritual road") was printed with illustrations of the stations in the Holy Land.[10]. Franz Liszt wrote a Via Crucis for choir, soloists and piano or organ or harmonium in 1879. Jesus’ days on earth are an example to us of the sacrificial life (Romans 12:1–2). The typical stations are small plaques with reliefs or paintings placed around a church nave. A perusal of the prayers usually given for this devotion in any manual will show what abundant spiritual graces, apart from the indulgences, may be obtained through a right use of them, and the fact that the Stations may be made either publicly or privately in any church renders the devotion specially suitable for all. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. At the same time he definitely fixed the number of Stations at fourteen. A book entitled "Jerusalem sicut Christi tempore floruit", written by one Adrichomius and published in 1584, gives twelve Stations which correspond exactly with the first twelve of ours, and this fact is thought by some to point conclusively to the origin of the particular selection afterwards authorized by the Church, especially as this book had a wide circulation and was translated into several European languages. Ecclesiastical approbation. Just days prior to his death in 2005, Pope John Paul II observed the Stations of the Cross from his private chapel. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. The conditions are that, whilst holding the crucifix in their hands, they must say the "Pater" and "Ave" fourteen times, then the "Pater", "Ave", and "Gloria" five times, and the same again once each for the pope's intentions. MLA citation. For the composition by Franz Liszt, see. In explanations of this it is supposed that the other four falls coincided with His meetings with His Mother, Simon of Cyrene, Veronica, and the women of Jerusalem, and that in these four the mention of the fall has dropped out whilst it survives in the other three which have nothing else to distinguish them. The Way of the Cross synonyms, The Way of the Cross pronunciation, The Way of the Cross translation, English dictionary definition of The Way of the Cross. The three falls of Christ (third, seventh, and ninth Stations) are apparently all that remain of the Seven Falls, as depicted by Krafft at Nuremburg and his imitators, in all of which Christ was represented as either falling or actually fallen. The position of the figures in the tableaux, too, may sometimes determine the direction of the route, for it seems more in accordance with the spirit of the devotion that the procession, in passing from station to station, should follow Christ rather than meet Him. All the way of the cross artwork ships within 48 hours and includes a 30-day money-back guarantee. The Cross means love. To provide a version of this devotion more closely aligned with the biblical accounts, Pope John Paul II introduced a new form of devotion, called the Scriptural Way of the Cross, on Good Friday 1991. In reply to a question the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences, in 1837, said that, although nothing was ordered on this point, beginning on the Gospel side seemed to be the more appropriate. With regard to the particular subjects which have been retained in our series of Stations, it may be noted that very few of the medieval accounts make any mention of either the second (Christ receiving the cross) or the tenth (Christ being stripped of His garments), whilst others which have since dropped out appear in almost all the early lists. The Stations of the Cross or the Way of the Cross, also known as the Way of Sorrows or the Via Crucis, refers to a series of images depicting Jesus Christ on the day of his crucifixion and accompanying prayers. It is the secret and power of a Christian's life. [17], Out of the fourteen traditional Stations of the Cross, only eight have a clear scriptural foundation. Alston, G.C. All credit goes to the famous celebrities who wore it, making this religious necklace more like a fashion statement! In 1686, in answer to their petition, Pope Innocent XI granted to the Franciscans the right to erect stations within their churches. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. New York: Robert Appleton Company. It is agreed that all that have ever been granted to the faithful for visiting the holy places in person can now be gained by making the Via Crucis in any church where the Stations have been erected in due form, but the Instructions of the Sacred Congregation, approved by Clement XII in 1731, prohibit priests and others from specifying what or how many indulgences may be gained. The earliest use of the word Stations, as applied to the accustomed halting-places in the Via Sacra at Jerusalem, occurs in the narrative of an English pilgrim, William Wey, who visited the Holy Land in 1458 and again in 1462, and who describes the manner in which it was then usual to follow the footsteps of Christ in His sorrowful journey. David Bowie regarded his 1976 song "Station to Station" as "very much concerned with the stations of the cross". Advocates of the traditional form of the Stations ending with the body of Jesus being placed in the tomb say the Stations are intended as a meditation on the atoning death of Jesus, and not as a complete picture of his life, death, and resurrection. Stefano Vagnini's 2002 modular oratorio, Via Crucis,[27] is a composition for organ, computer, choir, string orchestra and brass quartet. [28], Dimitris Lyacos' third part of the Poena Damni trilogy, The First Death, is divided in fourteen sections in order to emphasise the "Via Dolorosa" of its marooned protagonist during his ascent on the mount of the island which constitutes the setting of the work. Those at Nuremburg, which were carved by Adam Krafft, as well as some of the others, consisted of seven Stations, popularly known as "the Seven Falls", because in each of them Christ was represented either as actually prostrate or as sinking under the weight of His cross. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Marie Jutras. Formerly their number varied considerably in different places but fourteen are now prescribed by authority. What is the Cross? As the Stations of the Cross are prayed during the season of Lent in Catholic churches, each station is traditionally followed by a verse of the Stabat Mater, composed in the 13th century by Franciscan Jacopone da Todi. An interesting variation is found in the special set of eleven stations ordered in 1799 for use in the diocese of Vienne. Some have it displayed on their mantel, others wear it around their neck. Several travellers, it is true, who visited the Holy Land during the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries, mention a "Via Sacra", i.e., a settled route along which pilgrims were conducted, but there is nothing in their accounts to identify this with the Via Crucis, as we understand it, including special stopping-places with indulgences attached, and such indulgenced Stations must, after all, be considered to be the true origin of the devotion as now practised. Particularly common as musical accompaniment is the Stabat Mater. Alston, George Cyprian. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries several reproductions of the holy places were set up in different parts of Europe. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Realizing that few persons, comparatively, were able to gain these by means of a personal pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Innocent XI, in 1686, granted to the Franciscans, in answer to their petition, the right to erect the Stations in all their churches, and declared that all the indulgences that had ever been given for devoutly visiting the actual scenes of Christ's Passion, could thenceforth be gained by Franciscans and all others affiliated to their order if they made the Way of the Cross in their own churches in the accustomed manner. Even when only the, Ordinarily the Stations should be erected within a church or public oratory. [21][better source needed], In the Roman Catholic Church, the devotion may be conducted personally by the faithful, making their way from one station to another and saying the prayers, or by having an officiating celebrant move from cross to cross while the faithful make the responses. Community celebrations are usually accompanied by various songs and prayers. These may perhaps be regarded as the germ from which the Stations afterwards developed, though it is tolerably certain that nothing that we have before about the fifteenth century can strictly be called a Way of the Cross in the modern sense. The erection and use of the Stations did not become at all general before the end of the seventeenth century, but they are now to be found in almost every church. At the end of each station the Adoramus Te is sometimes sung. The cross is thus a sign of both Christ himself and of the faith of Christians. During the 15th and 16th centuries the Franciscans began to build a series of outdoor shrines in Europe to duplicate their counterparts in the Holy Land. Whether this is so or not we cannot say for certain. [25] Structurally, Mel Gibson's 2004 film, The Passion of the Christ, follows the Stations of the Cross. Ferraris mentions the following as Stations to which indulgences were attached: the place where Christ met His Blessed Mother, where He spoke to the women of Jerusalem, where He met Simon of Cyrene, where the soldiers cast lots for His garment, where He was nailed to the cross, Pilate's house, and the Holy Sepulchre. The following are the principal regulations universally in force at the present time with regard to the Stations: With regard to the number of Stations it is not at all easy to determine how this came to be fixed at fourteen, for it seems to have varied considerably at different times and places. Readers who are concerned with the Russia Hoax may wonder what the connection is. Question: "What is the meaning of the cross?" It cannot be said with any certainty when such indulgences began to be granted, but most probably they may be due to the Franciscans, to whom in 1342 the guardianship of the holy places was entrusted. Copyright © 2020 by Kevin Knight. [10] The earliest use of the word "stations", as applied to the accustomed halting-places in the Via Sacra at Jerusalem, occurs in the narrative of an English pilgrim, William Wey, who visited the Holy Land in the mid-15th century, and described pilgrims following the footsteps of Christ to the cross. Contact information. There should if possible be a separate meditation on each of the fourteen incidents of the Via Crucis, not a general meditation on the Passion nor on other incidents not included in the Stations. It has already been said that numerous indulgences were formerly attached to the holy places at Jerusalem. In 1773 Clement XIV attached the same indulgence, under certain conditions, to crucifixes duly blessed for the purpose, for the use of the sick, those at sea or in prison, and others lawfully hindered from making the Stations in a church. Traduzioni in contesto per "way of the cross" in inglese-italiano da Reverso Context: You knew the way of the cross. [8], After the siege of 1187, Jerusalem fell to the forces of Saladin, the first sultan of Egypt and Syria. In 1931, French organist Marcel Dupré improvised and transcribed musical meditations based on fourteen poems by Paul Claudel, one for each station. In several of these early examples an attempt was made, not merely to duplicate the most hallowed spots of the original Via Dolorosa at Jerusalem, but also to reproduce the exact intervals between them, measured in paces, so that devout people might cover precisely the same distances as they would have done had they made the pilgrimage to the Holy Land itself. Via Crucis: see also viacrucis, víacrucis, via crucis, via-crúcis, via crúcis, vía crucis‎ Via Crucis (English) Noun Via Crucis (uncountable) The Way of the Cross. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. the balcony from which these words were pronounced. Transcription. [11] A number of rural examples were established as attractions in their own right, usually on attractive wooded hills. One of the most popularly attended Ways of the Cross at the present day is that in the Colosseum at Rome, where every Friday the devotion of the Stations is conducted publicly by a Franciscan Father. The Stations of the Cross are representations of the path Jesus bore on his way to the crucifixion. The Gospel side is perhaps the more usual. Imitations of these were made at Louvain in 1505 by Peter Sterckx; at St. Getreu in Bamberg in 1507; at Fribourg and at Rhodes, about the same date, the two latter being in the commanderies of the Knights of Rhodes. The Via Dolorosa at Jerusalem (though not called by that name before the sixteenth century) was reverently marked out from the earliest times and has been the goal of pious pilgrims ever since the days of Constantine. The stations grew out of imitations of Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem which is believed to be the actual path Jesus walked to Mount Calvary. He explains the reason thus: "it is not permitted to make any halt, nor to pay veneration to them with uncovered head, nor to make any other demonstration". Inasmuch as the Way of the Cross, made in this way, constitutes a miniature pilgrimage to the holy places at Jerusalem, the origin of the devotion … Long before Jesus was crucified on the cross at Calvary, He exhorted us to take up our cross daily and follow Him, which is a condition of disciple A disciple is another word for a follower of Christ, one who is learning to be like his Master. pl.n. If one person hold the crucifix, a number present may gain the indulgences provided the other conditions are fulfilled by all. The pope himself wrote the texts for the Great Jubilee in 2000 and used the traditional Stations. Way of the Cross. A desire to reproduce the holy places in other lands, in order to satisfy the devotion of those who were hindered from making the actual pilgrimage, seems to have manifested itself at quite an early date. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. The three falls of Christ (third, seventh, and ninth Stations) are apparently all that remain of the Seven Falls, as depicted by Krafft at Nuremburg and his imitators, in all of which Christ was represented as either falling or actually fallen. 1. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. There is some uncertainty as to what are the precise indulgences belonging to the stations. One of the most popularly attended Ways of the Cross at the present day is that in the Colosseum at Rome, where every Friday the devotion of the Stations is conducted publicly by a Franciscan Father. [9] In 1217, St. Francis also founded the Custody of the Holy Land to guard and promote the devotion to holy places. Answer: Simply put, the meaning of the cross is death. The stations themselves must consist of, at the very least, fourteen wooden crosses—pictures alone do not suffice—and they must be blessed by someone with the authority to erect stations.[22]. There is wisdom of the highest level in the Cross. Inasmuch as the Way of the Cross, made in this way, constitutes a miniature pilgrimage to the holy places at Jerusalem, the origin of the devotion may be traced to the Holy Land. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. The pastor of such a church, or the superior of such a hospital, convent, etc., should take care to sign the document the bishop or the superior of the monastery sends, so that he may thereby express his consent to have the Stations erected in their place, for the bishop's and the respective pastor's or superior's consent must be had before the Stations are blessed, otherwise the blessing is null and void; Pictures or tableaux of the various Stations are not necessary. [11] The standard set from the 17th to 20th centuries has consisted of 14 pictures or sculptures depicting the following scenes:[13][14][15], Although not traditionally part of the Stations, the Resurrection of Jesus is sometimes included as an unofficial fifteenth station. According to many the Stations may be made more than once on the same day, the indulgence may be gained each time; but this is by no means certain (S.C.I., 10 Sept., 1883). Innocent XII confirmed the privilege in 1694 and Benedict XIII in 1726 extended it to all the faithful. For example, the religious complex of Santo Stefano in Bologna, Italy, replicated the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other religious sites, including Mount of Olives and Valley of Josaphat. In these the sculptures are often approaching life-size and very elaborate. The stations of a Via Crucis –Latin way translated and known as Way of the Cross, but also known as Via Dolorosa, referring to the suffering of Christ during the Way to Calvary– may have remembrance in a Biblical way, to remember and thank the Lord for His great love for us, but we do not need to fall in idolatry or fanaticism. In 1857, the bishops of England were allowed to erect the stations by themselves, without the intervention of a Franciscan priest, and in 1862 this right was extended to bishops throughout the church. Nihil Obstat. In deciding the matter, however, the arrangement and form of a church may make it more convenient to go the other way. The celebration of the Stations of the Cross is especially common on the Fridays of Lent, especially Good Friday. When Romanet Boffin visited Jerusalem in 1515 for the purpose of obtaining correct details for his set of Stations at Romans, two friars there told him that there ought to be thirty-one in all, but in the manuals of devotion subsequently issued for the use of those visiting these Stations they are given variously as nineteen, twenty-five, and thirty-seven, so it seems that even in the same place the number was not determined very definitely. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99... (Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). No particular prayers are ordered; The distance required between the Stations is not defined. They are as follows: The object of the Stations is to help the faithful to make in spirit, as it were, a pilgrimage to the chief scenes of Christ's sufferings and death, and this has become one of the most popular of Catholic devotions. the balcony from which these words were pronounced. However, is this design just a funky adaptation to the traditional upright cross, or is there an actual meaning of the sideways cross? (Philippians 3:8) Fellow brothers and sisters in Christ, let us keep our eyes on the cross and all its richness. "Way of the Cross." Past composers of the Papal Stations include several non-Catholics. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. In deciding the matter, however, the arrangement and form of a church may make it more convenient to go the other way. (1912). During His public ministry, He faithfully carried out God’s plan all the way to His death on the cross. In explanations of this it is supposed that the other four falls coincided with His meetings with His Mother, Simon of Cyrene, Veronica, and the women of Jerusalem, and that in these four the mention of the fall has dropped out whilst it survives in the other three which have nothing else to distinguish them. Wiktionary (0.00 / 0 votes)Rate this definition: Way of the Cross (Noun) A series of pictures/statues depicting the Stations of the Cross, as laid out around a church, along a road etc. . New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. The Way of the Cross definition: a series of images in a church or along a road to a church etc depicting the last hours... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Innocent XII confirmed the privilege in 1694 and Benedict XIII in 1726 extended it to all the faithful. Second Station: Jesus Carries His Cross We adore You, O Christ, and we praise You. And, naturally, with varying numbers the incidents of the Passion commemorated also varied greatly. The Way of the Cross, holy in its origin and holy in its effects, is likewise an easy form of prayer. About the same time the Blessed Eustochia, a poor Clare, constructed a similar set of Stations in her convent at Messina. Service : Jesus said He “did not come to be served, but to serve and to give His life a ransom for many” (Mark 10:45). In Davies's sequence, the final "station" represents the Resurrection, but of Antichrist, the composer's moral point being the need to distinguish what is false from what is real. The meaning of the Way of the Cross. Wey's account, written in the middle of the fifteenth century, gives fourteen, but only five of these correspond with ours, and of the others, seven are only remotely connected with our Via Crucis: In conclusion it may be safely asserted that there is no devotion more richly endowed with indulgences than the Way of the Cross, and none which enables us more literally to obey Christ's injunction to take up our cross and follow Him. But whilst this was being done in Europe for the benefit of those who could not visit the Holy Land and yet could reach Louvain, Nuremburg, Romans, or one of the other reproductions of the Via Dolorosa, it appears doubtful whether, even up to the end of the sixteenth century, there was any settled form of the devotion performed publicly in Jerusalem, for Zuallardo, who wrote a book on the subject, published in Rome in 1587, although he gives a full series of prayers, etc., for the shrines within the Holy Sepulchre, which were under the care of the Franciscans, provides none for the Stations themselves. Imprimatur. Some modern liturgists[24] say the traditional Stations of the Cross are incomplete without a final scene depicting the empty tomb and the resurrection of Jesus because Jesus' rising from the dead was an integral part of his salvific work on Earth. APA citation. The Veronica incident does not occur in many of the earlier accounts, whilst almost all of those that do mention it place it as having happened just before reaching Mount Calvary, instead of earlier in the journey as in our present arrangement. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15569a.htm The Blessed Alvarez (d. 1420), on his return from the Holy Land, built a series of little chapels at the Dominican friary of Cordova, in which, after the pattern of separate Stations, were painted the principal scenes of the Passion. It is carried out by passing from Station to Station, with certain prayers at each and devout meditation on the various incidents in turn. The way of the cross: The way of life. 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