"[22] Nevertheless, the Richard Nixon administration organized and inserted secret operatives in Chile, in order to quickly destabilize Allende's government.[23][24][25][26]. He was a Marxist physician and member of Chile's Socialist Party, who headed the "Popular Unity" (UP or "Unidad Popular") coalition of the Socialist, Communist, Radical, and Social-Democratic Parties, along with dissident Christian Democrats, the Popular Unitary Action Movement (MAPU), and the Independent Popular Action. [39][40][41] At least a thousand people were executed during the first six months of Pinochet in office, and at least two thousand more were killed during the next sixteen years, as reported by the Rettig Report. But, the Pinochet government helped the struggling Chilean economy and improved education giving Chile one of the highest literacy rates in Latin America. [3], The Araucanians, a fragmented society of hunters, gatherers, and farmers, constituted the largest Native American group in Chile. [12][13], After this initial excursion there was little interest from colonial authorities in further exploring modern-day Chile. After assurances of legality on Allende's part, the murder of the Army Commander-in-Chief, General René Schneider and Frei's refusal to form an alliance with Alessandri to oppose Allende – on the grounds that the Christian Democrats were a workers' party and could not make common cause with the oligarchs – Allende was chosen by a vote of 153 to 35. As the leader of guerrilla raids against the Spaniards, Manuel Rodríguez became a national symbol of resistance. The highest court of the country is the Supreme Court. The Portalian president was General Joaquín Prieto, who served two terms (1831–1836, 1836–1841). Congressmen often won election by bribing voters in this clientelistic and corrupt system. O'Higgins alienated liberals and provincials with his authoritarianism, conservatives and the church with his anticlericalism, and landowners with his proposed reforms of the land tenure system. Move over, Sherlock Holmes. He received strong backing from the middle and working classes as well as from the provincial elites. By 1973, Chilean society had grown highly polarized, between strong opponents and equally strong supporters of Salvador Allende and his government. Chile also temporarily resolved its border disputes with Argentina with the Puna de Atacama Lawsuit of 1899, the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina and the 1902 General Treaty of Arbitration, though not without engaging in an expensive naval arms race beforehand. Piñera won the elections with 54% of the votes. [28] By 1972, the economic progress of Allende's first year had been reversed, and the economy was in crisis. [57] President Aylwin served from 1990 to 1994, in what was considered a transition period. After the economic crisis, Hernan Buchi became Minister of Finance from 1985 to 1989, introducing a more pragmatic economic policy. This move lead to political and economic disaster. Mysterious underground caves discovered in Chile A group of researchers in Chile discover 20 underground caves which could help unlock mysteries about how … [61] She was sworn in on March 11, 2006, extending the Concertación coalition governance for another four years.[62]. Defeated, Balmaceda fled to Argentina's embassy, where he committed suicide. He repealed Liberal reforms that had threatened church privileges and properties. In 1808 when Spain was seized by Napoleon the Chileans saw an opportunity to gain independence. In addition, Nixon gave instructions to make the Chilean economy scream,[27] and international financial pressure restricted economic credit to Chile. However, these results were not sustainable and in 1972 the Chilean escudo had runaway inflation of 140%. Prieto and his adviser, Portales, feared the efforts of Bolivian general Andrés de Santa Cruz to unite with Peru against Chile. The longest lasting of the ten governments between 1924 and 1932 was that of General Carlos Ibáñez, who briefly held power in 1925 and then again between 1927 and 1931 in what was a de facto dictatorship. Archaeological evidence indicates that societies settled throughout Chile as early as the 600s BC. Chile went ahead with privatizations, including public utilities plus the re-privatization of companies that had returned to the government during the 1982–1983 crisis. Although the great white shark is one of the ocean's top predators, it's still considered a vulnerable species. The territory of Chile has been populated since at least 3000 BC. This in turn resulted in the 1973 coup d'état and the military dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet, whose subsequent 17-year regime was responsible for both numerous human rights violations and deep market-oriented economic reforms. These theories are backed by findings in the Monte Verde archaeological site, which predates the Clovis site by thousands of years. Alessandri broke with the classical liberalism's policies of laissez-faire by creating a Central Bank and imposing a revenue tax. Thousands were arrested, executed, exiled, or kept in prisons, while many people simply disappeared. A long, narrow country, it extends approximately 2,700 miles and has an average width of just 110 miles. Simultaneously, the CIA funded opposition media, politicians, and organizations, helping to accelerate a campaign of domestic destabilization. Joint public-private public works projects helped reduce unemployment. A rescue effort organized by the Chilean government located the miners 17 days later. Chile came out victorious giving it control over considerable territory, and several of the worlds biggest nitrate and copper mines. The civil struggle's harmful effects on the economy, and particularly on exports, prompted conservatives to seize national control in 1830. In 1520 Ferdinand Magellan was the first European to see Chile. The wealth of raw materials led to an economic upturn, but also led to dependency, and even wars with neighboring states. The constitution also created an independent judiciary, guaranteed inheritance of estates by primogeniture, and installed Catholicism as the state religion. But under orders of Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón, he was arrested there, attracting worldwide attention, not only because of the history of Chile and South America, but also because this was one of the first arrests of a former president based on the universal jurisdiction principle. These qualms exacerbated animosities toward Peru dating from the colonial period, now intensified by disputes over customs duties and loans. He served two terms (1841–1846, 1846–1851). At the time of the Spanish conquest of Chile in the mid-16th century, at least 500,000 Indians inhabited the region. The constitution concentrated authority in the national government, more precisely, in the hands of the president, who was elected by a tiny minority. The "Portalian State" was institutionalized by the Chilean Constitution of 1833. [49] Economic reforms were drafted by a group of technocrats who became known as the Chicago Boys because many of them had been trained or influenced by University of Chicago professors. Depending on what terms one uses to define the end, the movement extended until 1821 (when the Spanish were expelled from mainland Chile) or 1826 (when the last Spanish troops surrendered and Chiloé was incorporated to the Chilean republic). Christopher had set from Spain to reach India to bring spices such as pepper back to his country. During the conquest, the Araucanians quickly added horses and European weaponry to their arsenal of clubs and bows and arrows. The military junta began to change during the late 1970s. In 1540 Pedro de Valdivia a Spanish conquistador came to Chile were he founded several cities, despite resistance from the Araucanians. [64] Initial damage estimates were in the range of US$15–30 billion, around 10 to 15 percent of Chile's real gross domestic product. It was, however, an unusual regime in presidentialist Latin America, for Congress really did overshadow the rather ceremonial office of the president and exerted authority over the chief executive's cabinet appointees. In October 2019 there were violent protests about costs of living and inequality,[67] resulting in Piñera declaring a state of emergency. [44] According to the Latin American Institute on Mental Health and Human Rights (ILAS), "situations of extreme trauma" affected about 200,000 persons. In addition, the CIA's website reports that the agency aided three different Chilean opposition groups during that time period and "sought to instigate a coup to prevent Allende from taking office". All 33 men were brought to the surface two months later on 13 October 2010 over a period of almost 24 hours, an effort that was carried on live television around the world.[66]. Presidents and constitutions rose and fell quickly in the 1820s. However, amid mounting discontent, troops from the northern and southern provinces forced O'Higgins to resign. Industrial output increased sharply and unemployment fell during the administration's first year. Pre-Hispanic Chile was home to over a dozen different Amerindian societies. The lackluster presidents and ineffectual administrations of the period did little to respond to the country's dependence on volatile nitrate exports, spiraling inflation, and massive urbanization.[16]. Its capital is Santiago. … The political camp became divided by supporters of O'Higgins, Carrera, liberal Pipiolos and conservative Pelucones, being the two last the main movements that prevailed and absorbed the rest. In August 1828, Pinto's first year in office, Chile abandoned its short-lived federalist system for a unitary form of government, with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. At the same time, he reassured the landowners that social reforms would be limited to the cities.[17]. The abolition of slavery in 1823—long before most other countries in the Americas—was considered one of the Pipiolos' few lasting achievements. Responsible to the governor, town councils known as Cabildo administered local municipalities, the most important of which was Santiago, which was the seat of a Royal Appeals Court (Real Audiencia) from 1609 until the end of colonial rule. ;[45][46] this figure includes individuals killed, tortured or exiled, and their immediate families. They’re for bulk roasting bushels of green chiles, so you don’t have to buy a big bunch to take home and roast a dozen or so at a time on your stovetop or bbq. In 1990, Chile finally made a peaceful transition to democracy. Despite these problems the government enacted many changes that have lead Chile to become the most economically developed country in South America. At the end of his term, Frei had accomplished many noteworthy objectives, but he had not fully achieved his party's ambitious goals. The current prevalent theories are that the initial arrival of humans to the continent took place either along the Pacific coast southwards in a rather rapid expansion long preceding the Clovis culture, or even trans-Pacific migration. Failure to address the economic and social increases and increasing political awareness of the less-affluent population, as well as indirect intervention and economic funding to the main political groups by the CIA,[1] as part of the Cold War, led to a political polarization under Socialist President Salvador Allende. When chile season begins in August, drums like this roll out everywhere in the Southwest. The first two decades afterward were a period of transition to democracy from the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet. Promising "evolution to avoid revolution", he pioneered a new campaign style of appealing directly to the masses with florid oratory and charisma. The latter group was led by two colonels, Carlos Ibáñez del Campo and Marmaduke Grove. The Venezuelan Andres Bello make in this period important intellectual advances, specially the creation of the University of Santiago. His administration concentrated on the occupation of the territory, especially the Strait of Magellan and the Araucanía. [48], The junta embarked on a radical program of liberalization, deregulation and privatization, slashing tariffs as well as government welfare programs and deficits. The chief executive could serve two consecutive five-year terms and then pick a successor. Finally in 1541, Pedro de Valdivia begin the “colonization” of Chile. Chile also wanted to become the dominant South American military and commercial power along the Pacific. Eventually Chile was able to defeat Spain and Bernardo O'Higgins became Chile's first leader. O'Higgins, Carrera and many of the Chilean rebels escaped to Argentina. With a couple of hundred men, he subdued the local inhabitants and founded the city of Santiago de Nueva Extremadura, now Santiago de Chile, on February 12, 1541.[14]. The more leftist members of the Democrat Party became involved in the leadership of labor unions and broke off to launch the Socialist Workers' Party (Spanish: Partido Obrero Socialista – POS) in 1912. In 2002 Chile signed an association agreement with the European Union (comprising a free trade agreement and political and cultural agreements), in 2003, an extensive free trade agreement with the United States, and in 2004 with South Korea, expecting a boom in import and export of local produce and becoming a regional trade-hub. In the minds of most members of the Chilean elite, the bloodshed and chaos of the late 1820s were attributable to the shortcomings of liberalism and federalism, which had been dominant over conservatism for most of the period. Since the turn of the new millennium, the democratic process has been much stronger.Until the most recent election, Chilean elections were based around a system known as binomialism. The Spaniards never subjugated the Mapuche territories; various attempts at conquest, both by military and peaceful means, failed. In January 2006 Chileans elected their first woman president, Michelle Bachelet, of the Socialist Party. On the other hand, African slavery had very little influence in the Southwest, … Less than a month later, on September 11, 1973, the Chilean military deposed Allende, who shot himself in the head to avoid capture[30] as the Presidential Palace was surrounded and bombed. Allende adopted measures including price freezes, wage increases, and tax reforms, which had the effect of increasing consumer spending and redistributing income downward. An economic depression that had begun in 1967 peaked in 1972, exacerbated by capital flight, plummeting private investment, and withdrawal of bank deposits in response to Allende's socialist program. The groups in…. They returned Alessandri to the presidency that March and enacted his promised reforms by decree. Their combined army freed Chile with a daring assault over the Andes in 1817, defeating the Spaniards at the Battle of Chacabuco on February 12 and marking the beginning of the Patria Nueva. Various authors ascribe some 25 species to the genus but this is only an estimate with anticipated new species to be discovered and named as exploration of the New World tropics expands. Many politicians relied on intimidated or loyal peasant voters in the countryside, even though the population was becoming increasingly urban. During the presidencies of Prieto and his two successors, Chile modernized through the construction of ports, railroads, and telegraph lines, some built by United States entrepreneur William Wheelwright. Many enterprises within the copper, coal, iron, nitrate, and steel industries were expropriated, nationalized, or subjected to state intervention. More members of the Chilean elite were becoming convinced of the necessity of full independence, regardless of who sat on the throne of Spain. He allowed the peso to float and reinstated restrictions on the movement of capital in and out of the country. [65], Chile achieved global recognition for the successful rescue of 33 trapped miners in 2010. For him and for certain other members of the Chilean elite, the initiative for temporary self-rule quickly escalated into a campaign for permanent independence, although other Criollos remained loyal to Spain. Like Balmaceda, he infuriated the legislators by going over their heads to appeal to the voters in the congressional elections of 1924. Left with the impression that the inhabitants of the area were poor, he returned to Peru, later to be garotted following defeat by Hernando Pizarro in a Civil War. Toward the end of the 19th century, the government in Santiago consolidated its position in the south by persistently suppressing the Mapuche during the Occupation of the Araucanía. The Great Uprising of 1598 pushed all the Spanish south of the Bio-Bio River except Chiloé, with the Bio-Rio River becoming the frontier between t… It is now believed the Patagons were actually Tehuelches with an average height of 1.80 m (~5′11″) compared to the 1.55 m (~5′1″) average for Spaniards of the time. Another of the earliest advocates of full independence, Bernardo O'Higgins, captained a rival faction that plunged the Criollos into civil war. [18] The action plans to prevent Allende from coming to power were known as Track I and Track II. Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin, the candidate of a coalition of 17 political parties called the Concertación, received an absolute majority of votes (55%). Discover Chile Chile has established itself as an economic power in South America and a political leader in the continent. His attempt to devise a constitution in 1818 that would legitimize his government failed, as did his effort to generate stable funding for the new administration. One Pipiolo leader from the south, Ramón Freire, rode in and out of the presidency several times (1823–1827, 1828, 1829, 1830) but could not sustain his authority. September 18th 1810 Chile declared independence beginning a long war. It was featured at the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893 at the San Antonio Chili Stand. [47], The four-man junta headed by General Augusto Pinochet abolished civil liberties, dissolved the national congress, banned union activities, prohibited strikes and collective bargaining, and erased the Allende administration's agrarian and economic reforms. President Ricardo Lagos later commented that the retired general's televised arrival had damaged the image of Chile, while thousands demonstrated against him. This lead to nearly 100 years of warfare. A concerted attempt at colonization began when Diego de Almagro, a companion of conqueror Francisco Pizarro, headed south from Peru in 1535. [10], The Chilean part of Patagonia embraces the southern part of Valdivia, Los Lagos in Lake Llanquihue, Chiloé, Puerto Montt and the Archaeological site of Monte Verde, also the fiords and islands south to the regions of Aisén and Magallanes, including the west side of Tierra del Fuego and Cape Horn. The independence process is normally divided into three stages: Patria Vieja, Reconquista, and Patria Nueva. Sebastián Edwards, Alejandra Cox Edwards: Karin Fischer: The Influence of Neoliberals in Chile before, during, and after Pinochet. Accountability in Chile, The Kissinger Telcons: Kissinger Telcons on Chile, TELCON: September 16, 1973, 11:50 a.m. Kissinger Talking to Nixon, http://www.usip.org/library/tc/doc/reports/chile/chile_1993_toc.html, "El campo de concentración de Pinochet cumple 70 años", "The Chilean "Economic Miracle": An Empirical Critique", "Country Study of Chile: Authoritarianism Defeated by Its Own Rules", http://www.cidh.oas.org/annualrep/87.88sp/Chile9755.htm, "Man in the News: Patricio Aylwin; A Moderate Leads Chile", "Chile elects new leader Late president's son wins big", "Moderate socialist Lagos wins Chilean presidential election", https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/10/20/fire-kills-three-ransacked-chile-supermarket-protests-intensify/, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-chile-protests/chiles-pinera-extends-state-of-emergency-says-we-are-at-war-idUSKBN1WZ0EP, "One month on: Protests in Chile persist despite gov't concessions", "An overview of the Mapuche and Aztec military response to the Spanish Conquest", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Chile&oldid=991960061, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Antezana-Pernet, Corinne. [42][43] At least 29,000 were imprisoned and tortured. Despite pressure from the government of the United States,[18] the Chilean Congress, keeping with tradition, conducted a runoff vote between the leading candidates, Allende and former president Jorge Alessandri. Much of the banking sector was nationalized. Although opposed by many liberals, O'Higgins angered the Roman Catholic Church with his liberal beliefs. [69] But the COVID-19 pandemic postponed the date of the elections, while Chile was one of the hardest hit nations in the Americas as of May 2020. [36] The crippled economy was further battered by prolonged and sometimes simultaneous strikes by physicians, teachers, students, truck owners, copper workers, and the small business class. Eventually the Spanish dominated, but even then strife and conflicts continued for many more years. His political program enjoyed support from merchants, large landowners, foreign capitalists, the church, and the military. Chili pepper (Capsicum spp. Those in the south combined slash-and-burn agriculture with hunting. Lake Titicaca was a sacred space to the ancient Andean empire of the Inca, which at its height in the early 16th century controlled territory from modern-day Colombia to Chile… Portales was killed by traitors in 1837. Among those favoring independence, conservatives fought with liberals over the degree to which French revolutionary ideas would be incorporated into the movement. "International Crises and Popular Movements in Latin America: Chile and Peru from the Great Depression to the Cold War," in. Due to the Caso Degollados ("slit throats case"), in which three Communist party members were assassinated, César Mendoza, member of the junta since 1973 and representants of the carabineros, resigned in 1985 and was replaced by Rodolfo Stange. But political tensions, including a liberal rebellion, led to the Chilean Civil War of 1851. The drive for independence from Spain was precipitated by usurpation of the Spanish throne by Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte. In that post, he obeyed the viceroy of Peru and, through him, the King of Spain and his bureaucracy. [20] However, the reason behind the U.S. covert actions against Allende concerned not the spread of Marxism but fear over losing control of its investments. From May 1827 to September 1831, with the exception of brief interventions by Freire, the presidency was occupied by Francisco Antonio Pinto, Freire's former vice president. However, the title of discoverer of Chile is usually assigned to Diego de Almagro. Of course, the very nature of "disappearances" made such investigations very difficult. Production fell and unemployment rose. Nearly all of the scattered tribes were related in race and language, but they lacked any central governmental organization. President Prieto had four main accomplishments: implementation of the 1833 constitution, stabilization of government finances, defeat of provincial challenges to central authority, and victory over the Peru-Bolivia Confederation. The Great Uprising of 1598 swept all Spanish presence south of the Bío-Bío River except Chiloé (and Valdivia which was decades later reestablished as a fort), and the great river became the frontier line between Mapuche lands and the Spanish realm. Due to this, the people of Chile are very divided in their opinions about his rule. [31] As early as the Church Committee Report (1975), publicly available documents have indicated that the CIA attempted to prevent Allende from taking office after he was elected in 1970; the CIA itself released documents in 2000 acknowledging this and that Pinochet was one of their favored alternatives to take power. O'Higgins's opponents also disapproved of his diversion of Chilean resources to aid San Martín's liberation of Peru. One of these cities he founded was Santiago, which is now Chile's capitol and largest city. He introduced Bank regulations, simplified and reduced the corporate tax. The Inca Empire briefly extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, where they collected tribute from small groups of fishermen and oasis farmers but were not able to establish a strong cultural presence in the area. For the next forty years, Chile's armed forces would be distracted from meddling in politics by skirmishes and defensive operations on the southern frontier, although some units got embroiled in domestic conflicts in 1851 and 1859. Portales got Congress to declare war on the Confederation. The founder of the POS and its best-known leader, Luis Emilio Recabarren, also founded the Communist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Comunista de Chile – PCCh) in 1922. After protests in Santiago de Chile led to the destruction of two churches, the establishment cried “vandalism”, but their general neglect of the city’s architectural heritage suggests they’re shedding crocodile tears. In February 1991 Aylwin created the National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation, which released in February 1991 the Rettig Report on human rights violations committed during the military rule. Almagro was Francisco Pizarro's partner, and he received the Southern area (Nueva Toledo). The new constitution gave increased powers to the presidency. The country's economic development was successively marked by the export of first agricultural produce, then saltpeter and later copper. Military actions and movements, separate from the civilian authority, began to manifest in the countryside. [51], In 1982–1983 Chile witnessed a severe economic crisis with a surge in unemployment and a meltdown of the financial sector. By Nsikan Akpan Apr. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Boundary Treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina, History of Chile during the Parliamentary Era (1891–1925), Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina, National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation, Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership, Chilean presidential election of 2009–2010, violent protests about costs of living and inequality, Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo, "Chile – Conquest and Colonization, 1535–1810", "Chile – PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC, 1891–1925", "Chile – Arturo Alessandri's Reformist Presidency, 1920–25", "Chile: 16,000 Secret Documents Declassified", http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB8/ch01-01.htm, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB8/ch27-01.htm, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB8/ch05-01.htm, "Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents Relating to the Military Coup, September 11, 1973", "How 'weak' Allende was left out in the cold by the KGB", "Equipo Nizkor – CIA Activities in Chile – September 18, 2000", "Admite hija de Allende suicidio de su padre", CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet’s Repression Report to Congress Reveals U.S. Known as Track I and Track II, amid mounting discontent, troops the. 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